History of Hydraulic Turbine:
Hydraulic turbines are used for centuries for power applications in industry. At that time Water wheels used to obtain mechanical energy from hydraulic energy. But, the main disadvantage was the size of the water wheel and high head, which limits the flow rate of water.
During the Industrial revolution, the design of the water wheel or turbine was improved with the help of scientific principles and methods. In amendments of designs and layout of hydraulic turbines also changed in materials of turbines to improve strength and longer life turbines.
World’s first hydroelectric power plant The Vulcan Street Plant started operation in 1882, on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin. This power station began operation to provide electric power to the paper industry, Appleton paper manufacturer H.J.Rogers. Later, the plant named as Appleton Edison Light Company.
The world’s largest hydroelectric power plant with a power generation capacity of 22,500 is located on the Three Gorges Dam, Hubei province (China).
Working Principle of Hydraulic Turbines:
Hydraulic turbines are based on Newton’s second law. According to newton’s law, the rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the applied force. So, in the turbines, force is generated by changes in the moment of water. This force is applied against turbine blades or buckets.
Changing in moments results, pressure force generated, rotates the turbine. As the change in momentum is high, the resulting generated force also high, which increases the energy conversion. To considering this principle, the blades or buckets are designed so it can convert the maximum energy of water.
Hydroelectric Power Plant Layout:
A Hydroelectric power plant is consists of:
- Water storage in a dam across a river.
- Pipe having a large diameter to carry water with pressure from the storage reservoir to the turbines. Generally made by reinforced concrete or steel. This pipe is penstocks.
- Any kind of turbine mounted on the wheel.
- A channel that carries water away from the turbines after moving the turbine. This channel is Tail Race. Even, the water surface in the tailrace channel is also known as a tailrace.
- A generator linked or coupled with the turbine shaft, to convert mechanical power into electrical power.
- Step Up Transformer and powerhouse, to controlling and transmission of generated power.