Hello friends… How are you??? I hope all is going well. Today we are here, to know that how can we guess on which side of our car’s fuel cap or lid is located.
After long working days, going for a long drive in the is so enjoyable. How is your wish… please comment below. And what a chance if you drive your car on the trip? Before starting a trip, we need to full the fuel tank, so we can enjoy our trip. But did you ever think, from which side you can take fuel in your car’s fuel tank? If you have not an idea… then you may go out and check the fuel cap. But you can also guess exactly on which side is this cap, without going outside the car.
Maybe in your personal car, you will well known about the fuel cap. But, in case you are driving your friend’s car or other rental cars, which you are driving for the first time. It is quite difficult to remember this thing. So let we will check about how to we can know that, on which side is this fuel cap?
For checking, where is the fuel lid, look at the dashboard. As similar to your car’s dashboard, here, you can see the fuel gauge. An arrow shows, either the left or right side of the fuel pump symbol. This arrowhead the right side means the fuel cap is located on the right side of the vehicle or car.
In another image, you can see the arrowhead on the left side, which means the fuel cap is mounted on the left side of the car.
There are two other example images are showing the fuel lid mounting side. This indication varies as car or vehicle models and versions.
Internal Combustion Engine, the short and most popular name is IC Engine. It is one of the types of engines, fuel burns, and creates pressure to a piston inside the cylinder. Fuel burns or combusts inside of the cylinder, that’s the reason it is knowns as Internal Combustion Engine. IC engine is the most important topic for Mechanical Engineering and Automobile stream. Almost everyone has an idea about the IC engine. Nowadays IC engines are the most wide power-generating engine. The type of generated power may be mechanical power or electrical power.
Before we read about IC engines, we will also know about Heat Engines. Because the IC engine is a type of Heat Engine.
What is a Heat Engine?
An Engine is a machine that can converts one form of energy into another form in the desired manner. And A Heat Engine is a machine that transforms the chemical energy into thermal energy, and this thermal energy produces mechanical energy. Here chemical energy, obtained from burning the fuel. Where fuel is like wood, coal, petroleum fuel, etc. Heat engines are classified into two major types:
External Combustion Engine
Internal Combustion Engine
Do you know about the Steam Engine? Yes, the steam engine was invented by James Watt. The steam engine is a perfect example of an external combustion engine. In an external engine, the mixture of fuel and air combust outside and transfers heat to the second fluid. This fluid is the working fluid for the cycle. The steam of the working fluid pushes the piston. Stirling engine is also an external combustion engine.
What is an IC Engine?
Internal combustion engine, in this type of heat engine the fuel and air mixture ignite and directly, pushes the piston. Diesel and Petrol engines are the best examples of the internal combustion engine. Wankel cycle, gas engine, rocket and, jet engines are also examples of internal combustion engines.
IC engines are compact and lighter as compared to external combustion engines. That is the main reason these engines are widely used in automobiles and transport vehicles like cars, buses, locomotives, aircraft, etc.
The earliest IC engine was Huygens Gunpowder Engine. Was invented in 1680 by famous Dutch physicist Christian Huygens.
IC Engine parts:
Let’s check are basic parts of a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine (SI engine). In the below image you can see a sketch layout of a single-cylinder engine. Cylinder block holds the cylinder. And cylinder head covers at the top end. In the cylinder, a piston moves upward to downward and vice-versa. This motion is reciprocating motion. The space enclosed between the upper part of the cylinder and the top of the piston during the combustion process is known as the combustion chamber.
The mixture of air and fuel enters the combustion chamber through the inlet port. This charge (air and fuel mixture), before entering the inlet port, comes from carburetor to inlet manifold. The inlet manifold is a connector between air intake and inlet port.
What is the function of the carburetor, Do you know?
The Carburetor is mixing, regulator, and controller device. Means, carburetor makes a mixture of fuel (gasoline) and air. The carburetor regulates the air and fuel ratio. And also controls the engine’s speed by regulating air-fuel mixture with the help of throttle.
Inlet valve in the cylinder head charges the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber and the exhaust valve discharges the combusted product after combustion.
For starting the combustion, the air-fuel mixture requires a spark. A spark plug provides this spark to initiate combustion.
After the combustion process, gases expand and creates a force on the piston. This force displaces the piston downward. A couple of rings i.e, piston rings prevent gas leakage during expands the gas. And a gudgeon pin provides smooth swivel motion between piston and crank rod.
Piston’s downward movement rotates the crankshaft with the help of a crank rod. The crank rod or connecting rod helps to convert reciprocating motion into rotational motion. And crankshaft is a translator, which translates the reciprocating motion into rotational motion. The crankshaft is enclosed in a crankcase. It is the main engine body. Inside the crankcase, the crankshaft is supported by bearings.
From which part of the engine operates the valves? Did you think that?
Now, let’s go back to the combustion process. Here, the charge intakes through the inlet valve and the combusted product discharges from exhaust valves. Both, the intake and exhaust valves are operated by the valve mechanism. The Crankshaft also drives the camshaft with the help of timing gears. This camshaft transform motion to the pushrod and rocker arm for opening the valves. The valve springs develop force against the rocker arm force and this closes the valves again.
Engine parts are made from what kind of materials?
Did you think what is material used to make piston? Let’s we will take a short time to know that material. Not only for piston, but we will discuss in a brief about materials of other engine parts also.
Engine Part Name
1. Cylinder head
Aluminum alloy, Cast Iron
Aluminum alloy, Cast Iron
4. Piston rings
Silicon Cast Iron
5. Gudgeon (Piston) pin
7. Connecting rod
8. Cylinder liner
Nickel-based alloy, Steel, Cast Iron
Bronze alloy, White metal
Alloy steel, Ductile (Nodular) cast iron
Aluminum alloy, cast iron, alloy steel
12. Rocker arm
Cast iron, carbon steel, aluminum alloy
Terminology in IC Engine:
The following terms are used in IC engine.
Stroke(L) – The distance traveled by a working piston in a cycle.
Piston Area(A) – The cross-sectional area of the piston.
Cylinder Bore(D) – The nominal inner diameter of the cylinder.
Dead Center – The position of the piston during working either at the topmost point or bottommost point of the cylinder. In an engine, there are two dead centers i.e; Top dead and Bottom dead center.
Top dead center (TDC) – The furthermost or topmost position of the piston with respect to the crankshaft is the top dead center. TDC is known as inner dead center (IDC) in the case of horizontal engines.
Bottom dead center (BDC) – The bottommost or nearest position of the piston with respect to the crankshaft. TDC is known as outer dead center (ODC) in the case of horizontal engines.
Displacement Volume(Vs) – The volume generated by the piston when traveling between one dead center to another dead center. It is the product of the piston area and stroke. Another name of displacement volume is swept volume. Vs = A x L
Clearance Volume(Vc) – While piston goes on TDC, the volume of the combustion chamber is clearance volume.
Cylinder Volume (V) – The total of displacement volume and clearance volume. V = Vs + Vc
Compression ratio(r) – The compression ratio is the ratio of the cylinder volume and clearance volume. r = V / Vc
In this article, we have read about the Heat engine and IC engine, The general parts, and the terminology of the engine. In the next article, we will also discuss the base of classification and types of IC engines. Till stay continues with us.
If you have any queries regarding this article, please comment in the comment box. Your review will help us to improve content quality.
We all are living on Earth. In this world, to live a better life we need three most important things. These things are Food, Cloths, and Home. Among those three things, Home is the most important thing. But have you ever thought what is most important that helps to make our home, building, or any other structure? Your answer will be sand, stone, bricks, concrete, steel water, etc. But one thing, which bonds all materials together that thing is Cement. In our daily life, cement has a very important role. We live in the house, walk on the road, travel through bridges. Every building, road, airport, and many structures cement is required for construction.
But did you think that Cement comes from where? What is cement made of? How it manufactures? Let, we will talk about all related topics to cement.
What is Cement?
A cement is a binding substance, which used to bind other buildings or civil construction material like bricks, stones, gravels, tiles and, etc. Cement can set and hardened independently and can bind other building materials together. It is a very fine powder contains limestone, clay, silica, and alumina. Also contained with bauxite and iron oxide. All these contents blended and heated to 1200° C to 1500° C, this process makes clinker. Then ground this clinker into fine powder. Also added Gypsum for providing settle time.
History of Cement:
Human has started the use of cement material with construction has been started. Even we can also say that cement material history is old as like engineering construction history. The archaeologist has discovered some kinds of cement material used in Harappa and Mohanjo-Daro civilization during excavation. In the earlier Greeks and Romans had used burning limestones as cementing materials. Later they had increased awareness of volcanic ash and tuff, mixing with limestone powder and sand, which provides better strength and durability in water.
Romans had found volcanic tuff near Pozzuoli village in Italy. The obtained ash contained better siliceous, due to this natural quality this named as Pozzolana. Later, this name added to other artificial and natural cement materials also, having similar properties.
Accidently Romans had discovered by adding blood in cement mixture will increase durability and workability. Hemoglobin having better plastic property. It was another reason for the durability of Roman structures.
William Aspdin had invented “Modern portland cement”. And patented on 21st October 1824.
China is the World’s largest cement producer country. 2200 Million Metric Tonnes of cement produced in 2019. Over half of the cement is produced in China.
India is the World’s second-largest cement producer country. 320 Million Metric Tonnes of cement produced in 2019.
World’s largest cement plant is in Michigan. Currently, this plant is the part of the world’s largest producer company Lafarge Corporation.
Do you know???
The world’s tallest statue “Statue of Unity” is situated in Gujarat, Bharat (India). This statue is built to tribute to “Iron man of India – Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. This statue is 30 meters taller than the previous record-holder statue “Spring Temple Buddha” in China. To construct the Statue of Unity, 210,000 m³ cement used.
Types of Cement:
There are various types of cement to fulfill specific requirements in construction industries. These types are based on the use of additives, various types of raw material in mixture, and variation in chemical composition.
Portland cement are classified under the ASTM (American Society for Testing Materials) standards. According to ASTM, cement having Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV, Type V some other minor types.
Main stages of Cement making:
To make the cement in a cement production plant, there is a standard process. In the first step of the process is to quarrying and raw materials are prepared. In the second step, the mixing of raw material (clay and limestone) in a certain proportion. Then this mixture burned OR heated in a furnace (kiln) to make clinker at a temperature of about 1300° to 1500° C. This step is known as the clinker production step. And in the third stage, this clinker cooled and mixing with gypsum then ground into a fine powder which is the final product as cement. Let, we will see a cement production process on a flow chart. Before it, also we need to get familiar with types of cement processes.
Types of Cement processes:
Here are the three main types of cement processes. i.e,
Semi-dry or Precalcinar Process
In the wet process, the limestone is brought from the quarry and crushes into a small form. Then it mixed with clay and ground into fine powder in a ball mill or tube mill. And mixed it with water. This makes a fine consistency slurry. The slurry is pumped into a slurry tank. To prevent the settling of limestone and clay particles, the slurry is stirred with a rotating arm or chain in slurry tanks.
This slurry sprayed on kiln’s outer surface. The heated kiln surface removes moisture contents from slurry and converts into flakes. These flakes go to the hottest part of the kiln. Where temperature ranges from 1300° to 1500° C. At this temperature material gets diffused. And chemical reactions occur in diffusion. Where, the silica, alumina, and lime get combined. This combination turns into a grain size of 3 to 20 mm known as clinker. The cooled clinker fine ground in a ball mill with mixing gypsum into. Now, it is ready for packaging.
The main advantage of the wet process is, it is more accurate and easy in controlling the mixing and grinding raw materials. But, it requires huge fuel to remove water content from the slurry.
In the dry process, the raw materials are ground in a grinding mill and charge it in the correct proportion. This raw material mixture is ground in very fine powder in the grinding mill. This fine powder is the raw meal. And it further ground and mixing of the corrected amount of its contents by pressurized air. And this powder also contained dry air, it behaves like a fluid.
Now, this blended powder filtered and fed into granulator. Here, 12 percent by weight of water added in fine powder to make small pallets. It helps in chemical reaction while heating in a rotary kiln. In the dry process fuel (coal) is required lesser then wet process. So, it is an economical process.
For the semi-dry process, the same method used. In the semi-dry process also required less amount of fuel (coal). It allows for a higher production rate.
In this article, we have studied Cement, history, types, manufacturing process, and process types. We will discuss in detail about cement manufacturing plant and machineries in the next article.
If you have any queries regarding this article, please comment in the comment box. This article is helpful for you? Please like and share it. Your review will help us to improve content quality. If you have any queries regarding this article, please comment in the comment box. This article is helpful for you? Please like and share it.
Do you have to think that In your house electric power comes from where? How to produce the electric power? In our world electric power is generated by various conventional and renewable methods like thermal, solar, wind, hydel, biomass, geothermal, etc. Hydro electrical plants, generate around 17% power in the world. Now it is also a question, How hydro-electrical power plants generate power from hydro or water? The answer is Hydraulic turbines.
Let’s, we will discuss about what are hydraulic turbines, working principles, history, layout of hydraulic power plants, types of hydraulic turbines, and their advantages – disadvantages in this post.
What are Hydraulic turbines?
Hydraulic turbines are rotary machines that convert the energy of fluid flow into mechanical energy. And this energy further converts into electrical energy by the rotating of shaft of dynamo. Continue reading “What are Hydraulic Turbines?”
Hey, do you lift your car’s trunk door? It is so easy in opening and closing. Right? Did you think ever why is it too easy in operating? You have seen their two in a pair or sometimes single lifting devices. What is this? Let we will discuss all these questions.
These lifting devices are known as gas springs. The principal of Gas spring is similar to a mechanical coil spring. A mechanical spring stores energy and releases subsequently. Similarly, filled gas of spring also stores and releases energy. Gas spring can be defined as a hydro-pneumatic device, in which Nitrogen gas contained with oil to provide compressible and damping medium. Major parts of gas spring are piston, piston rod, pressure cylinder, and clamping elements. Gas strut is also a phrase of gas spring.
How do Gas Spring works?
While applying force to the piston rod, did you think that How gas spring works? What is the principle of Gas Spring? According to Boyl’s law, the volume of internal gas decreases resulting in a proportional increase pressure. The inner gas compressed by applying force on piston, gas stores energy, and oil provides smooth flow with damping. While we stop force application to piston road, compressed gas expands and move back the piston again. This compressed gas acts like spring. During the expansion of compressed gas, we can hear that expansion sound. The output force of spring is the pressure difference between atmospheric pressure outside of the cylinder and inner gas pressure. The resultant force is calculated by multiplication of pressure generated by gas and area of piston face. i.e,
Gas Spring Terminology:
Stroke: Maximum extendable length of the rod, is known as stroke
Extended length: The total distance between one end to another end while spring in the extended position.
Closed length: The total distance between one end to another end while spring in a closed position. When no ends are fitted with spring, the length will be measured from rod end to tube end excluding threaded length.
Usage and Applications of Gas Spring:
Gas springs are used where requires controlled motion without adding extra force. It allows easy handling of heavy objects. It offers harmonic and controlled motion while moving objects. Due to various advantages gas springs are used in automobile, automation, aerospace, marine applications, pharmaceuticals, furniture applications, office chairs, household and medical and industrial applications. As we can say that, the list of applications is so long.
Types of Gas Spring:
Have you any idea, what are types of gas springs? Let we will discuss types of gas struts. There are various types of gas springs according to application and requirements. Like Standard gas spring, adjustable locking gas spring, gas spring dampers, tension, and traction gas spring, custom or special gas spring, stainless steel gas spring, variable-speed gas spring, etc. Let us talk about some types of springs.
Standard gas spring –
Simple gas springs are reliable and easy in use. This type of spring is vastly used in the car’s hatch door, Adjustable chairs, Lids, and top openers, etc. In this spring having a closed container filled with pressurized nitrogen gas, which develops expansion force to the piston and displaces the rod.
Adjustable locking gas spring –
This type of gas springs are used, where locking at certain extension is required. Like Hospital bed, adjustable office chairs, stools, executive chairs, etc. having locking spring. Standard gas spring having a locking plunger, which locks the piston rod movement. This type of springs are used in the hospital bed, adjustable car and passenger seats, emergency casualty trolleys, etc. The locking gas springs having two types i.e, rigid locking gas spring and cushioned locking. In cushioned springs, rod having slight traveling tendency while increasing load. This type of springs are used widely, the reason is behind these springs are easy in manufacturing. And rigid locking gas spring once locked, the rod does not moves or travels even load added or removed.
Variable gas spring –
Where variable traveling motion mostly in pushing, requires this type of springs used. Mostly we can see this type of springs in doors. In variable gas springs having a dual cylinder connected using a connector with hydraulic valve. One cylinder is pneumatic and another one hydraulic. Hydraulic cylinder creates damping during pushing motion.
Custom gas spring –
This type of gas springs are designed for variable applications. Like special machinery, robotic applications, medical applications, aerospace, military applications, etc.
Components of Gas Spring:
The main components of gas springs are Cylinder, A piston, piston rod, seal, valve, and guide. Nitrogen gas filled in the cylinder.
In this article, we have studied about gas spring and their types, working principle, and, uses and applications of gas spring. We will discuss about mounting and gas spring calculation in our next article, so stay tuned. If you have any queries regarding this article, please comment in the comment box. This article is helpful for you? Please like and share it. And visit us regularly for reading more new interesting articles. Thank you for your support.
Revolt Motors, is India’s first AI motorcycle manufacturer, start-up founded by Mr. Rahul Sharma. He is an Indian Businessman, founder of Revolt Motors as well as YU Televentures and former Co-founder of Micromax Informatics. By this project he aimed to make a green and eco-friendly bike, so found an electric bike as best option. And accepted various challenges relative to its development and manufacturing. Headquarter of Revolt Motors is located in Gurugram. And assembly line is located in Manesar. This plant having manufacturing capacity of around 120 thousands e-bikes per year.
Revolt Motors has revealed their first e-bike RV400 on June 2019. Then after they have launched on 28, August 2019. They had planned to available their products via dealership and as well as online. So, they had opens online bookings for Delhi and Pune customers at first batch. And In first they had got a very good response from customers. They deployed four dealerships in New Delhi and two in Pune in first phase. And currently this bike delivery is available in Delhi, Pune, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad and Chennai.
Cutting tool in Mechanical Engineering is a tool used to cut or remove any other material by application of force. In our daily life, we use knives and scissors are also examples of cutting tools. Where Single Point Cutting Tool removes chip or cut the material from work-piece by means of single-point or edge attached with shank. Cutting tools are most widely used in industries for creating the required shape of the product by facing, turning, chamfering, shaping, drilling, boring, etc operations. Lathe machine and shaper machines having single-point cutting tools in most of the operations. In industries most widely examples of single-point cutting tools are turning tool, boring tool, shaping tool, planning and slotting tool.
Petroleum is a fossil fuel, formed from trees plants, bacteria and algae. Over million years, under the earth, due to high heat and pressure, that fossils converted into high carbon usable fuels.
Petrol comes from where? …… Do you know?
Have refueled your car? …… Ohhh No??? You must need to go or Petrol station, and refuel it. But have think about that, petrol comes from where? Petrol and petroleum oil is most important energy source in our daily life. Now a days, we can say that without petrol our life will be motionless.
Petrol is British English word, it is a fuel derived from crude oil which is used into run a SI (Spark Plugged Ignition) IC Engines, which may used to drive your car or may used in an industry. It also known as Gasoline in American English. Petroleum fuels are stable sources of energy instead of renewable energy sources (solar energy, wind energy). Crude oil is extracted from some miles depth of earth using giant drilling machines. The reservoirs are found beneath the earth and sea surface. And then in refinery it refines by refinement process, where crude oil is transforms in Fuels like Gasoline, Diesel, Various types of gaseous products like LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), lubricants oil and many more by products of petroleum also. Before discovery of mineral oils, woods and coals were the main sources of fuel. And for small purposes oil was resourced from natural resources like groundnut, and fatty oil from animals and fishes.
Do you know!!!
World’s largest refinery plant is situated in India called as Jamnagar Refinery. This refinery plant having refining capacity of 1.24 million barrel oil per day.
In our daily life we use various kinds of products and during that we can’t miss importance of plastics. Have you noticed that how much we use????
I think, you are reading this post on your Mobile…. Right? Hmmm…. No? Ok, then on Laptop….??? On Desktop….??? Or any screen or any other gadget…. My mean … exactly!!!
From starting of our day in early morning we must requires tooth brush, water bucket- tumbler, shampoo container, pen for writing, raincoats for wearing, chairs for sitting, lunch box, water bottle, parts of bike, car and bicycle etc. and various products are made of plastic. You’re Mobile, your laptop, desktop, car’s dashboard and so on… I think this list has no end. Now a days in various applications timber or wooden and metallic parts has been replaced by Plastics. Such as we can see our furniture like your dining table, chairs was made by sheet metals or wooden pieces. But at this time that are made by plastic.
Hmmmm…. As we can say that without plastic our life will not easy to get movement….
What are Plastics?
A light and strong material made by synthesization of chemicals and it is used to making many usable objects. Plastic is polymer material which having easy mouldable properties. Generally, plastics are moulded by application of heat and such amount of pressure. Synthetic and semi-synthetic Plastics are used in various range of applications.
Do you know? What is oxybenzylmethyleneglycolanhydryde ?
Ahhhh…. I know it is not easy to pronounce. But actually it is plastic or we can say it is term of plastic and its name is Bakelite.
Plastics comes from where?
The word Plastic, is comes from Greek word plasticos, means that material able to mould and shape by application of heat and pressure. Plastic is organic material same as timbers and mineral oil derived from materials found in nature, such as petroleum oils, coal, minerals and plants. Rubber is also a plastic which is obtained by Rubber Tree (Euphorbiaceae). Most of plastic we uses in our daily life is made of petroleum oil or crude oil. It is obtained by Polymerisation and